Dernière mise à jour le : 20 janvier 2000

Effets de l'exploitation par la pêche sur la dynamique de diversité des peuplements de poissons démersaux : analyse comparée du rôle des interactions entre espèces dans le golfe de Gascogne et dans le golfe du Lion

DESCRIPTION

This work deals with the fishing effects on the diversity dynamics of demersal fish communities, focusing on the biotic interactions. Multispecies indices are used in order to characterize the demersal fish community dynamics of the Bay of Biscay and of the Gulf of Lions. These are the diversity indices, the temporal variability of the total biomass and of the slope of the number size spectra and the slope of the species-area curves (spatial segregation). The yearly bottom trawl surveys EVHOE, CHALIST and MEDITS, carried out in these two areas since 1983 by IFREMER for the stocks assessment provide the data. The differences between areas are related to a fishing index (mean value of the annual landings of demersal fish per surface area). Other areas are included in the analysis when the index values are available from the published literature (North Sea, Scotian Shelf, Kenya, French Guyana). It is argued from the diversity indices analysis that the Gulf of Lions community is more diverse and less disturbed than the Bay of Biscay one. This result is not consistent with a fishing effect but with biogeography. The total biomass variability and the slope variability of size spectra are higher in the most harvested areas than in the least ones. On the contrary, the species-area slope is the lowest in the most harvested areas. Theoretically, biotic interactions decrease the total biomass variability and the spectra slope variability because of compensations and increase the species area slope because of competitive exclusion. It is concluded that harvesting alters biotic interactions and favour local coexistence by decreasing competitive exclusion. The species diversity maintenance depends on competitive exclusion. Hence, biodiversity is threatened not only by a direct fishing effect but also by a dynamics alteration.

NOTICE BIBLIOGRAPHIQUE DETAILLÉE

keyboard_arrow_right Titre : Effets de l'exploitation par la pêche sur la dynamique de diversité des peuplements de poissons démersaux : analyse comparée du rôle des interactions entre espèces dans le golfe de Gascogne et dans le golfe du Lion
keyboard_arrow_right Type de documentation : Thèse / Mémoire
keyboard_arrow_right Auteur(s) personne(s) : Blanchard, Fabian
keyboard_arrow_right Date de publication : 20 janvier 2000
keyboard_arrow_right Nombre de pages : 153 p., application/pdf
keyboard_arrow_right Editeur(s) : Université Bretagne Ouest
keyboard_arrow_right Tags thématiques : poisson, peuplement (biologique)
keyboard_arrow_right Langue : Français
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